Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28 - Contents, Features, Benefits, Challenges, and Sources
Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28: A Comprehensive Review
If you are interested in learning more about chemical kinetics, the branch of physical chemistry that studies the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions, you might want to check out Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28, a classic textbook written by Keith James Laidler, one of the pioneers and authorities in the field. In this article, we will review this book in detail, covering its background, contents, features, benefits, challenges, and sources. By the end of this article, you will have a clear idea of what this book is about, why you should read it, and how to get it.
Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28
What is Chemical Kinetics?
Before we dive into the book review, let's first define what chemical kinetics is and why it is important. Chemical kinetics is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions. It answers questions such as:
How fast do chemical reactions occur?
What factors affect the speed of chemical reactions?
What steps are involved in a chemical reaction?
What intermediate species are formed during a chemical reaction?
How can we control or optimize a chemical reaction?
The Scope and Importance of Chemical Kinetics
Chemical kinetics has a wide scope and application in various fields of science and engineering, such as:
Chemical engineering: Chemical kinetics is essential for designing and operating chemical reactors, where the rate and selectivity of chemical reactions determine the efficiency and quality of the products.
Environmental science: Chemical kinetics helps us understand and predict the fate and transport of pollutants and contaminants in the atmosphere, water, and soil, as well as the effects of climate change and ozone depletion.
Biochemistry: Chemical kinetics provides insights into the molecular mechanisms and regulation of biochemical reactions, such as enzyme catalysis, metabolic pathways, and signal transduction.
Pharmaceutical science: Chemical kinetics enables us to evaluate the stability, efficacy, and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, as well as the kinetics of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
Nuclear science: Chemical kinetics plays a role in nuclear fission and fusion reactions, as well as the decay and transmutation of radioactive isotopes.
The Basic Concepts and Terminology of Chemical Kinetics
Some of the basic concepts and terminology of chemical kinetics are:
Rate of reaction: The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.
Rate law: The mathematical expression that relates the rate of reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and possibly other factors.
Order of reaction: The exponent of the concentration term in the rate law.
Rate constant: The proportionality constant in the rate law that depends on the temperature and the nature of the reaction.
Half-life: The time required for the concentration of a reactant or product to decrease by half.
Mechanism of reaction: The sequence of elementary steps that make up a complex reaction.
Molecularity of reaction: The number of molecules involved in an elementary step.
Activated complex: The transitional structure formed during an elementary step that has the highest energy and is most unstable.
Activation energy: The minimum energy required to form an activated complex from the reactants.
Catalyst: A substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy without being consumed or changed in the process.
Who is Keith James Laidler?
Now that we have a brief overview of chemical kinetics, let's get to know the author of Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28, Keith James Laidler. Who is he and what are his contributions to chemical kinetics and physical chemistry?
His Life and Career
Keith James Laidler was born on October 18, 1916, in Liverpool, England. He obtained his B.Sc. in chemistry from Liverpool University in 1937 and his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Cambridge University in 1940. He then worked as a research chemist at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) until 1945. In 1946, he moved to Canada and joined the University of Ottawa as a professor of chemistry. He became the head of the chemistry department in 1955 and served until 1967. He also held visiting professorships at various universities around the world, such as Harvard University, University of California Berkeley, University of Texas Austin, University of Paris, University of Tokyo, and University of Sydney. He retired from teaching in 1982 but remained active in research until his death on August 26, 2003.
His Contributions to Chemical Kinetics and Physical Chemistry
Laidler was one of the pioneers and authorities in chemical kinetics and physical chemistry. He made significant contributions to various topics, such as:
The theory of unimolecular reactions: He developed the RRKM theory (Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory) with Marcus Kassel in 1952, which is a statistical mechanical approach to calculate the rate constants of unimolecular reactions based on the energy distribution among different vibrational modes.
The theory of photochemical reactions: He proposed the quantum yield concept with Michael Polanyi in 1938, which is a measure of how efficiently a photochemical reaction converts light energy into chemical energy.
The theory of surface reactions: He formulated the Eley-Rideal mechanism with Derek Eley in 1940, which is a model for heterogeneous catalysis where one reactant adsorbs on the surface while another reactant collides with it from the gas phase.
The theory of enzyme catalysis: He introduced the concept of conformational changes in enzyme-substrate complexes in 1950, which is a key factor for explaining the specificity and efficiency of enzyme catalysis.
The history and philosophy of physical chemistry: He wrote several books and articles on the historical and philosophical aspects of physical chemistry, such as The World of Physical Chemistry (1993), To Light Such a Candle: Chapters in the History of Science and Technology (1998), and The Physical Basis of Chemistry (2000).
Laidler also received numerous awards and honors for his achievements, such as:
The Noranda Award from the Chemical Institute of Canada in 1961.
The Henry Marshall Tory Medal from the Royal Society of Canada in 1965.
The Centenary Medal from the Royal Society of Chemistry in 1977.
The Order of Canada in 1987.
The Gerhard Herzberg Canada Gold Medal for Science and Engineering in 1993.
What is Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28?
Now that we have learned about the author of Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28, let's see what this book is about. What are its overview, features, contents, and structure?
The Overview and Features of the Book
Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28 is a textbook that covers both the experimental and theoretical aspects of chemical kinetics. It was first published in 1950 by Harper & Row, and then revised and updated in 1965 and 1987. The third edition has 531 pages and includes 12 chapters, three appendices, a glossary, a bibliography, an index, and a table of conversion factors. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of chemistry, as well as researchers and practitioners who want to gain a general knowledge of the subject or refresh their understanding of the fundamentals. Some of the features of the book are:
It provides a clear and concise explanation of the basic concepts and principles of chemical kinetics, such as rate laws, mechanisms, activated complexes, transition-state theory, statistical mechanics, catalysis, photochemistry, and reactions in solution and solid state.
It presents a rigorous and intelligent analysis of the theoretical methods and models for calculating and predicting the rate constants and mechanisms of chemical reactions, such as collision theory, unimolecular theory, bimolecular theory, termolecular theory, variational theory, tunneling corrections, partition functions, and energy distribution functions.
It illustrates the application and relevance of chemical kinetics to various fields of science and engineering, such as chemical engineering, environmental science, biochemistry, pharmaceutical science, nuclear science, and more.
It includes historical background and biographical sketches of important researchers in chemical kinetics in both chapter introductions and text boxes.
It offers extensive chapter bibliographies that point the way toward more detailed accounts or specialized aspects of chemical kinetics.
It contains numerous examples, problems, figures, tables, graphs, and equations that help explain and reinforce the concepts and methods discussed in the book.
The Contents and Structure of the Book
The book is organized into four parts: Part I: Introduction; Part II: Elementary Reactions; Part III: Complex Reactions; Part IV: Theoretical Methods. Here is a brief summary of each chapter:
Chapter 1: The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
This chapter introduces the concept of rate of reaction and how it can be measured experimentally. It also explains how to express the rate law for a reaction in terms of the concentrations of the reactants and the order of the reaction. It also discusses how to determine the rate law and the rate constant experimentally using methods such as initial rates, integrated rate laws, and graphical analysis.
Chapter 2: The Mechanism of a Chemical Reaction
This chapter introduces the concept of mechanism of reaction and how it can be inferred from experimental data. It also explains how to write and evaluate a possible mechanism for a complex reaction using criteria such as elementary steps, reaction intermediates, molecularity, rate-determining step, and consistency with the rate law.
Chapter 3: Unimolecular Reactions
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of unimolecular reactions, which are reactions that involve only one molecule in an elementary step. It covers topics such as the Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism, the RRKM theory, the energy distribution function, the microcanonical and canonical ensembles, and the unimolecular decomposition of molecules such as acetaldehyde, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen dioxide.
Chapter 4: Bimolecular Reactions
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of bimolecular reactions, which are reactions that involve two molecules in an elementary step. It covers topics such as the collision theory, the activated complex theory, the steric factor, the potential-energy surface, the transition-state theory, the Hammond postulate, and the bimolecular reactions of molecules such as hydrogen and iodine, hydrogen and bromine, and hydrogen and chlorine.
Chapter 5: Termolecular and Other Complex Reactions
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of termolecular and other complex reactions, which are reactions that involve three or more molecules in an elementary step. It covers topics such as the low probability of termolecular collisions, the role of third bodies in pressure-dependent reactions, the fall-off curves and Lindemann plots, the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory for complex reactions, and the termolecular and complex reactions of molecules such as ozone, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.
Chapter 6: Catalysis
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of catalysis, which is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by using a catalyst. It covers topics such as the characteristics and types of catalysts, the mechanisms and kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, the adsorption and desorption phenomena on solid surfaces, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms for surface reactions, and the catalytic reactions of molecules such as ammonia synthesis, methanol synthesis, water-gas shift reaction, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions, and catalytic converters.
Chapter 7: Photochemical Reactions
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of photochemical reactions , which are reactions that are initiated or influenced by light. It covers topics such as the quantum yield, the photochemical equivalence law, the Jablonski diagram, the fluorescence and phosphorescence phenomena, the quenching and sensitization processes, the photolysis and photosynthesis reactions, and the photochemical reactions of molecules such as chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, benzene, and anthracene.
Chapter 8: Reactions in Solution
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of reactions in solution, which are reactions that occur in a liquid medium. It covers topics such as the solvent effects on reaction rates and mechanisms, the solvation and hydration phenomena, the ionic strength and activity coefficients, the diffusion-controlled reactions, the salt effects and common-ion effects, the acid-base catalysis and general acid-base catalysis, and the reactions in solution of molecules such as acetone, ethanol, esters, and amides.
Chapter 9: Reactions in the Solid State
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of reactions in the solid state, which are reactions that occur in a solid medium. It covers topics such as the structure and properties of solids, the diffusion and migration phenomena, the defect chemistry and nonstoichiometry, the solid-state catalysis and surface chemistry, the heterogeneous reactions and phase transitions, and the reactions in the solid state of molecules such as polymers, metals, ceramics, and semiconductors.
Chapter 10: Transition-State Theory
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of transition-state theory (TST), which is a theoretical approach to calculate the rate constants of chemical reactions based on the concept of activated complex. It covers topics such as the derivation and assumptions of TST, the partition functions and thermodynamic functions of activated complex, the comparison of TST with collision theory and experimental data, the limitations and corrections of TST, and the application of TST to various types of reactions.
Chapter 11: Variational Transition-State Theory and Tunneling Corrections
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of variational transition-state theory (VTST) and tunneling corrections, which are extensions and modifications of TST to account for some of its limitations. It covers topics such as the variational principle and its application to TST, the calculation of variational transition states using energy profiles or potential-energy surfaces, the tunneling effect and its influence on reaction rates, the calculation of tunneling corrections using Wigner's method or Eckart's method, and the application of VTST and tunneling corrections to various types of reactions.
Chapter 12: Statistical Mechanics and Reaction Rates
This chapter focuses on the theory and application of statistical mechanics to reaction rates , which is a theoretical approach to calculate the rate constants of chemical reactions based on the concept of statistical ensemble. It covers topics such as the microcanonical ensemble and the transition-state theory, the canonical ensemble and the partition function, the grand canonical ensemble and the chemical potential, the relation between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, and the application of statistical mechanics to various types of reactions.
Appendix A: Units and Conversion Factors
This appendix provides a table of units and conversion factors for various physical quantities, such as length, mass, time, energy, temperature, pressure, and concentration.
Appendix B: Mathematical Methods
This appendix provides a summary of some mathematical methods that are useful for chemical kinetics, such as differential equations, linear algebra, matrices and determinants, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, and numerical methods.
Appendix C: Experimental Methods
This appendix provides a brief overview of some experimental methods that are used for studying chemical kinetics, such as spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, chromatography, calorimetry, polarimetry, conductivity, electrochemistry, and flow techniques.
Why Should You Read Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28?
Now that we have seen what Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28 is about, let's see why you should read it. What are its benefits and advantages? What are its challenges and limitations?
The Benefits and Advantages of Reading the Book
Some of the benefits and advantages of reading the book are:
It gives you a comprehensive and in-depth knowledge of chemical kinetics, both experimental and theoretical.
It helps you develop your analytical and problem-solving skills by applying the concepts and methods of chemical kinetics to various types of reactions.
It enhances your understanding and appreciation of physical chemistry by connecting chemical kinetics with thermodynamics and statistical mechanics.
It exposes you to the historical and philosophical aspects of chemical kinetics by introducing you to the important researchers and their contributions in the field.
It prepares you for further studies or research in chemical kinetics or related fields by providing you with extensive references and bibliographies.
The Challenges and Limitations of Reading the Book
Some of the challenges and limitations of reading the book are:
It requires a solid background in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and calculus to follow the derivations and calculations in the book.
It may be outdated or incomplete in some aspects due to the rapid development and advancement of chemical kinetics since its publication in 1987.
It may be difficult to access or obtain due to its limited availability or high cost.
How to Get Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28?
Finally, let's see how you can get Chemical Kinetics 3rd Edition Laidler Pdf 28. What are the sources and options for getting the book? What are the tips and precautions for getting the book?
The Sources and Options for Getting the Book
Some of the sources and options for getting the book are:
You can buy a hard copy or an ebook version of the book from online or offline bookstores or publishers. For example, you can find it on Amazon.com , AbeBooks.com , or Cambridge University Press . The price may vary depending on the condition, edition , and availability of the book.
You can borrow a copy of the book from a library or a friend who owns it. For example, you can search for it on WorldCat.org , which is a global catalog of library collections, or on Library Genesis , which is a search engine for books and articles.
You can download a pdf version of the book from the internet. For example, you can find it on Libgen.io ,